Learn more about the classes of solids through easy chemistry
The articles are arranged in their shape and volume in some characterization which gives them their state. As we all know that there are three states of matter, i.e. solid, liquid and gas. All these three states vary accordingly to its volume and shape and have their own characteristics. In the career of science students especially the ones studying in Class 12th have different questions arising in their mind pertaining to the features of the different states of matter.
All their questions can be answered very easily by going through the basics given in the NCERT Solutions for Class 12-The solid state, which gives an understanding to the science students.
What are solids- It is that state of matter which is characterized by particles arranged in such a manner that their shape and volume are remained relatively stable as compared to the others like liquid and gases. The major constituents of a solid state object tends to be packed together in a much closer manner than the particles in a gas or liquid state. It is only because of the reason that a solid has a very rigid shape due to the atoms or molecules being so tightly connected via chemical bonding. This bonding may produce either a regular lattice (as seen in ice, metals, and crystals) or an amorphous shape e.g. glass or amorphous carbon.
Hence, a solid is one of the three fundamental states of matter, along with liquids, and gases.
Here solid state chemistry is that branch of science dedicated to studying the correct properties and synthesis of solids in their real state.
Different classes or varieties of solids- It is because of the chemical bonds that helps in joining the particles together exerting characteristics forces, which helps in classifying the solids from the others. Look for details in the cbse class 12 Chemistry chapter 9 describing each element of solid in the simple terms.The different solids that exists are-
- Minerals– They are the natural solids formed by geological processes having a uniform structure. Examples of minerals include diamond, salts, and mica.
- Metals- Solid metals include elements and alloys. Such solids are typically hard, ductile, malleable, for example- silver and steel and are excellent conductors of heat and electricity.
- Ceramics–There are solids having some inorganic compounds, usually oxides.They are called ceramics which tend to be hard, brittle, and corrosion-resistant.
- Organic Solids–The polymers, wax, plastics, and wood are the solids that are thermal and electrical insulators having a lower melting and boiling points than metals or ceramics.
- Composite Materials–The materials which contain two or more phases example- plastic containing carbon fibers, yield the properties of composite not seen in the source components.
- Semiconductors–Other semiconductors solids have some electrical properties to that of those of conductors and insulators. The solids may be either pure elements, compounds, or doped materials. Examples include silicon and gallium arsenide.
Other solids may be nanomaterials, biomaterials, etc. which have properties different to that of discussed above. The solid state can be the hardest chapter but if the students are able to get through them comfortably it can give ways to the career in chemistry.